金融

金融

金融模型:概述

Jan Borchert, Current Hydro达纳·霍尔先生.

介绍

After considering all environmental factors related to our project site, 它的大坝和微型水利设施, we would like to focus on the presentation of the 选择ions for dam owners or hydro-site owners to sell their hydropower 和 to create a revenue stream from their hydroelectric generation. These revenue streams can be categorized into three different financial models: 所有权, 电力购买协议(PPA), 社区分布式发电(CDG). 这取决于谁用电, 谁经营网站, 谁来推销电力, how the electricity is marketed as well as other site-specifics, 水厂所有者可以或不能使用其中一种或另一种.

We would like to introduce the three models here 和 explain their main differences, before referring you to specific blog posts for more details. 2022世界杯下注还准备了三个 报告下载,详细介绍了三种型号的具体情况.

所有权模型

The 所有权 model requires a scenario where our hydro-site owner roughly uses all of the electricity that his hydro project would 生成. This model is the choice for simple customer-sited, net metered or 离网项目,甚至可能得到NYSERDA的资助 层 1个可再生能源学分(推荐). 对于这个模型,项目可以:

  • be developed completely off grid, with no interconnection to the distribution 实用程序.
  • be “behind-the-meter”, where the project is wired to the load on site 和 has an interconnection agreement with the 实用程序 for net metering.
  • 选择 to participate in “remote net metering” if they own multiple locations (和 electricity meters), one generating electricity 和 interconnected to the grid 和 others with load that have 实用程序 accounts under the same customer name 和 within the same distribution 实用程序 territory as the account attached to 生成源.
NEM第一阶段是根据《2022世界杯下注》提供的 
(PSL)§66-j和66-I至2020年1月1日. NYPSC是
正在研究一项替代方案,其中可能包括
NEM的延续.

In all cases with the 所有权 model, the same entity that owns the hydro project also owns the electrical load being served.

PPA模式

Utilizing a 电力购买协议(PPA) is suitable where the hydro project is owned 和/or operated by one entity, the offtaker with load (the entity that is using the electricity) is a different entity. 的商品销售 entity purchases the energy output from the generator entity 和 the revenue from the energy sale is used to finance the construction of the project, 有时是由第三方投资者.

换句话说, if your hydro-site is physically adjacent to an entity that could use all of your electricity generation, you might be able to sell your electricity directly to this one entity using a PPA. 另外, if you own 财产 with hydropower potential, you might find a developer to build 和 operate the facility 和 to sell you the electricity output for your 财产. In either way, the owner of 生成源 和 the owner of 负载不是同一个实体. 这个模型可能:

  • be an off-grid project, which means that an interconnection agreement with the 分配效用是不必要的.
  • be able to use remote net metering if you own 财产 with microhydro potential 和 load in a separate location, but you wish for someone else to construct, own 和 operate the hydro project 和 to sell you the output.

是什么使它成为一个PPA的事实是,offtaker是 purchasing electricity from a separately owned generation source.

CDG模型

The 社区分布式发电(CDG) model is a program that allows the hydro-site owner to allocate energy output to other electricity customers who sign a subscription agreement. In this case the hydro-project is called “host” 和 the customers are called “subscribers”. Host 和 subscribers must be in the same 实用程序 distribution territory 和 New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) zone. 换句话说, 作为哈德逊中心的电力客户, you can only sign up for a CDG within the Central Hudson service territory, 国家电网, 等. 分别.

CDG的利益相关者的角色

 公共事业的工作是应用这一代 output credits on the subscriber’s electric bill, while the CDG host bills the 订购积分的人在随后的一个月申请了积分.

This model works best if you hydropower potential exceeds your own on-site electricity needs 和 the project can easily be interconnected to 本地配电公司. 在CDG计划下,主持人必须直接 market to 和 find retail customers, bears the risk of managing a 订阅业务与每月结算.

CDG is not a long-term contract with a single offtaker; instead, it is an arrangement where the generation output of a project is allocated to a group of subscribers who may come in 和 out of the program during its 一生. In the CDG model, the risk of not having enough subscribers to allocate generation output is born by the CDG host 和 mitigated by effective 市场营销和持续吸引新订户.

Summary

总结了一般差异和规定 following table compares the three models with regard to ownership, grid connection, electricity consumer, marketing efforts 和 contract duration.

Follow these links for more information about the respective models or download the Bard-NYSERDA 金融模型 Report.


金融模型报告

While shorter sections to specific topics of the financial models will be posted as blog posts, we’ve also created a detailed report for each of the three financial models as reference:


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